Levels of Motion Control

Levels of Motion Control

Controlling a mobile robot can be done at a number of levels
and ROS provides methods for most of them.
These levels represent different degrees of abstraction,
beginning with direct control of the motors
and proceeding upward to path planning
and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping).

Motors, Wheels, and Encoders

Most differential drive robots running ROS use encoders
on the drive motors or wheels.
An encoder registers a certain number of ticks
(usually hundreds or even thousands) per revolution of the corresponding wheel.
Knowing the diameter(直径) of the wheels and the distance between them,
encoder ticks can be converted to the distance traveled in meters
or the angle rotated in radians.
To compute speed,
these values are simply divided by the time interval between measurements.

This internal motion data is collectively known as odometry
and ROS makes heavy use of it as we shall see.
It helps if your robot has accurate and reliable encoders
but wheel data can be augmented using other sources.
For example, the original TurtleBot uses a single-axis gyro(陀螺仪)
to provide an additional measure of the robot’s rotational motion since
the iRobot Create’s encoders are notably inaccurate during rotations.
It is important to keep in mind that no matter
how many sources of odometry data are used,
the actual position and speed of the robot in the world can
(and probably will)
differ from the values reported by the odometry
The degree of discrepancy will vary depending on the environmental conditions
and the reliability of the odometry sources.

Motor Controllers and Drivers

At the lowest level of motion control we need a driver for the robot’s motor
controller that can turn the drive wheels at a desired speed,
usually using internal units such as encoder ticks per second
or a percentage of max speed.
With the exception of the Willow Garage PR2 and TurtleBot,
the core ROS packages do not include drivers for specific motor controllers.
However, a number of third-party ROS developers have published drivers
for some of the more popular controllers and/or robots
such as the ArbotiX, Serializer, Element, LEGO® NXT and Rovio.
(For a more complete list of supported platforms,
see Robots Using ROS.)

The ROS Base Controller

At the next level of abstraction,
the desired speed of the robot is specified in real-world units
such as meters and radians per second.
It is also common to employ some form of PID control.
PID stands for “Proportional Integral Derivative(比例积分导数)”
and is so-named because the control algorithm corrects the wheel velocities
based not only on the difference (proportional) error between the actual
and desired velocity,
but also on the derivative and integral over time.
You can learn more about PID control on Wikipedia.
For our purposes, we simply need to know that the controller
will do its best to move the robot in the way we have requested.
The driver and PID controller are usually combined inside a single ROS node
called the base controller.
The base controller must always run on a computer attached directly to
the motor controller
and is typically one of the first nodes launched when bringing up the robot.
A number of base controllers can also be simulated in Gazebo
including the TurtleBot,
and Erratic.

The base controller node typically publishes odometry data on the
/odom topic and listens for motion commands on the /cmd_vel topic.
At the same time, the controller node typically (but not always) publishes
a transform from the /odom frame to the base frame
either /base_link or /base_footprint.
We say “not always” because some robots like the TurtleBot,
uses the robot_pose_ekf
package to combine wheel odometry
and gyro data to get a more accurate estimate of the robot’s position
and orientation.
In this case, it is the robot_pose_ekf node that publishes
the transform from /odom to /base_footprint.
(The robot_pose_ekf package implements an Extended Kalman Filter as you can
read about on the Wiki page linked to above.)

Once we have a base controller for our robot,
ROS provides the tools we need to issue motion commands
either from the command line or by using other ROS nodes
to publish these commands based on a higher level plan.
At this level, it does not matter what hardware
we are using for our base controller:
our programming can focus purely on the desired linear and angular velocities
in real-world units and any code we write should work on
any base controller with a ROS interface.

Frame-Base Motion using the move_base ROS Package

At the next level of abstraction,
ROS provides the move_base
package that allows us to specify a target position
and orientation of the robot with respect to some frame of reference;
move_base will then attempt to move the robot to the goal
while avoiding obstacles
The move_base package is a very sophisticated path planner
and combines odometry data with both local and global cost maps
when selecting a path for the robot to follow.
It also controls the linear and angular velocities and accelerations
automatically based on the minimum and maximum values we set
in the configuration files.

SLAM using the gmapping and amcl ROS Packages

At an even higher level,
ROS enables our robot to create a map of its environment using
the SLAM gmapping package.
The mapping process works best using a laser scanner
but can also be done using a Kinect or Asus Xtion depth camera to provide
a simulated laser scan.
If you own a TurtleBot,
the TurtleBot stack includes all the tools you need to do SLAM.

Once a map of the environment is available,
ROS provides the amcl package
(adaptive Monte Carlo localization) for automatically localizing the robot
based on its current scan and odometry data.
This allows the operator to point and click on any location
on a map and the robot will find its way there while avoiding obstacles.
(For a superb introduction to the mathematics underlying SLAM,
check out Sebastian Thrun’s online Artificial Intelligence
course on Udacity.)

Semantic Goals (语义目标)

Finally, at the highest level of abstraction,
motion goals are specified semantically such as
“go to the kitchen and bring me a beer”, or simply, “bring me a beer”.
In this case, the semantic goal must be parsed and translated
into a series of actions.
For actions requiring the robot to move to a particular location,
each location can be passed to the localization and path planning levels
for implementation.
While beyond the scope of this volume,
a number of ROS packages are available to help with this task
including smach, executive_teer, worldmodel, semantic_framer,
and knowrob.

In summary, our motion control hierarchy looks something like this:

-> amcl
-> path planner
-> move_base
-> /cmd_vel + /odom
-> base controller
-> motor speeds



my c++ .. yuiwong.org .. c++



c++ !!!

  • 封装
  • 继承
  • polymorphism 多态

polymorphism 多态

  • 多态: 是对于不同对象接收相同消息时产生不同的动作.
  • c++ 的多态性具体体现在运行和编译两个方面:
    • 在程序运行时的多态性通过继承和虚函数来体现
    • 在程序编译时多态性体现在函数和运算符的重载
  • c impl. 封装: struct

  • c impl. 继承: container_of

 * @description 结构体: 通过成员地址找到首地址 / downcast parent to sub
 * @param
 * - `type':
 *   首地址 - 类型
 *   Or. downcast - "subtype" "子类"类型
 * - `memptr'
 *   首地址 - 成员地址
 *   Or. donwcast - parptr: 子类的"父类"成员(组合)的地址
 * - `mem'
 *   首地址 - mem 成员名
 *   Or. downcast - "父类作为子类的成员"(组合)的名字
#define YUIWONGORGPOSIX_CONTAINER_OF(type, memptr, mem) \
    ((type *)((unsigned long)(memptr) \
    - (unsigned long)&((type *)0)->mem))
  • c impl. 多态: 函数指针


  • 冒泡排序
  • 快速排序
  • 选择排序

see TODO



  • stl std::map 实现: 红黑树
  • stl std::vector 调整大小
  • iterator / iterator 模式
  • template TODO
  • typename and classname TODO
  • typedef TODO
  • typealias TODO

  • 空值类型: void

  • sometype *restrict someptrrestrict:

(例如 pointer + 1)

* gcc clang .. c++: `__restrict__`
* vc++ .. c++: `__restrict` and `__declspec(restrict)`
* c99 `memcpy`:
`void * memcpy(void *restrict dest, const void *restrict src, size_t n);`
`restrict` => let `memcpy()` 可以假定两个内存区域没有重叠.
=> 使用 `memcpy()` 时, 您必须确保没有重叠区域. 这是程序员的任务的一部分.
* see <https://yuiwong.org/gitweball/?p=cpp-basics.git;a=tree>
  • memcpy and memmove
  • __attribute__(GNU), __declspec(ms) and #pragma: 编译器工具到语言的扩展
    • Attributes 属性
      C++11 provides a standardized syntax for compiler/tool extensions
      to the language.
      Such extensions were traditionally specified using #pragma directive
      or vendor-specific keywords (like __attribute__ for GNU
      and __declspec for Microsoft).
    • see https://yuiwong.org/gitweball/?p=cpp-basics.git;a=tree
  • explicit (显式)
    • explicit 是避免构造函数的参数自动转换为类对象的标识符
      => 必须要显示地调用构造函数
      => 即类似看到效果: 避免了创建临时对象
      (实际并没有看到调用两次 ctor 而是避免了自动转换)
    • see https://yuiwong.org/gitweball/?p=cpp-basics.git;a=tree
  • union TODO

  • assign operator: 注意: 需要判断是否是本身 特别不是通过构造函数实现时
  • stream operator TODO
  • cast operator TODO
  • subscript 即 [] operator

    • std::map: 没有 idx 下标操作, 有 key 下标操作
    • std::list 无下标操作
    • std::set 无下标操作
  • c++ struct 可以有构造函数、普通函数 访问修饰 继承等 像 class 一样

  • static var 会初始化 (包括作用域内)

c++ advanced

  • 智能指针
    • see TODO
  • 设计模式

    • see TODO
  • 虚函数 虚函数表 虚函数表地址 and 运行时多态 TODO

  • 虚析构函数 TODO
  • 子类析构父类析构 TODO
  • container TODO
  • collection TODO

  • stl c++11 and above multi-threading

    • <atomic> atomic (header)
    • <thread> thread (header)
    • <mutex> mutex (header)
    • <condition_variable> condition variable (header)
    • <future> future (header)
    • see TODO
  • optional, nullopt_t, nullopt TODO

  • nullptr_t, nullptr TODO
  • any TODO
  • var.. TODO
  • forward TODO

  • typeid (header <typeinfo>) 用于类型检查 => rtti

    • example
    const std::type_info& ti1 = typeid(A);
    const std::type_info& ti2 = typeid(A);
    assert(&ti1 == &ti2); /* not guaranteed */
    assert(ti1.hash_code() == ti2.hash_code()); /* guaranteed */
    assert(std::type_index(ti1) == std::type_index(ti2)); /* guaranteed */
    • see TODO
  • cast
    • 隐式转换
    • 显式转换
    • const_cast
    • static_cast
    • reinterpret_cast
    • dynamic_cast
    • cast_operator 转换操作符 (e.x. std::nullptr)
  • some more casts
    • downcast: downcast parent to sub(child)
    • upcast: upcast sub(child) to parent
    • sidecase: cast to 兄弟类
    • see TODO

see also